She is an elementary school teacher, who received her bachelor's degree from University of New Hampshire, and her master's degree in education from Penn State. She also earned a diploma from the Institute of Children's Literature. She currently lives in New England. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. When Charles became involved in war with Puritan Scotland, popular hatred of Henrietta's Catholicism roused When Charles became involved in war with Puritan Scotland, popular hatred of Henrietta's Catholicism roused Parliament to fury.
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African Americans and the Oscar: Decades of Struggle. At the Academy Awards' ceremony, an unprecedented number of Black performers received acting nominations, At the Academy Awards' ceremony, an unprecedented number of Black performers received acting nominations, and two of the statues awarded that evening went to Forest Whitaker and Jennifer Hudson.
Indeed, since , more African Americans have received 'scars than David Cameron and Conservative renewal: The limits of. It argues that Cameron's strategy was wide-ranging and multi-faceted, and that it evolved from a coherent programme of explicit modernisation into a The concerns he raises have been central to American anthropology for The monitoring component included goose movement and population surveys using neck-collared geese and standardized fecal counts, at both managed and unmanaged sites.
We conducted fecal surveys, as an indirect method for potentially estimating site-specific goose populations and associated reduction in damage. The number of droppings counted, when standardized to droppings per foot per day, decreased at treated sites , 0. In addition, the mean number of geese observed at treated sites decreased each year , 77; , 19; , 11 while the mean number at unmanaged sites did not differ.
The implementation of an integrated non-lethal goose damage management program over 3 years reduced the number of Canada geese at specific locations and minimized local conflicts. The widespread adoption of this type of program could reduce humanCanada goose conflicts across a larger landscape but will require extensive coordination of local projects, a public involvement process, and an intensive, long-term commitment of resources.
Increased populations of resident Canada geese create major crop loss problems for farmers, especially in areas that become traditional sites for brood-rearing. Such sites concentrate geese and goslings in locations where food is abundant and flightless adults and young find escape safety on adjacent lakes or rivers.
Stacy's Rantings and Whatnot: Wednesday Reads and Other Stuff
Emerging corn, winter wheat, and soybeans are favorite foods, and these sustain extensive crop damage when near water and brood-rearing sites. From 16 May to 28 August , alarm and alert call playbacks from GooseBuster call units were used with and without other scare reinforcement to assess efficacy of different methods at reducing crop damage at multiple sites near Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin.
On-demand use of call units, coupled with firing screamer and banger shells, was found to be the most effective method for inducing long-term crop avoidance.
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Crop damage reduction was very successful, ranging from a The use of real and artificial effigies has proven to be an effective alternative to pyrotechnics and other traditional methods for the dispersal of nuisance vulture roosts. During the winters of and , we applied the same principles of effigy use to a large urban crow roost in the Lancaster, PA area.
The initial deployment of effigies occurred in November in a wooded area where approximately 10, birds had already congregated to the detriment of nearby businesses. By December, as the roost grew to approximately 40, birds, we successively moved the birds to a series of alternate sites along a wooded creek. In January, the crows split into smaller roosting aggregations and began to disperse. In October , before wintering crows arrived, we installed effigies in wooded areas where the crows had settled the previous year. Although preferred roost habitat in , these areas were used only sparingly by crows throughout the second winter.
Instead, crow roosting activity was focused in downtown Lancaster.
At wooded sites where 5,, birds did settle, we installed additional effigies and the birds responded by leaving. During November-December , we provided technical assistance to a citizen-based crow management effort that successfully incorporated the use of artificial crow effigies with other harassment to move the roost 30, to 40, birds to a site acceptable to the community. We conclude that crow effigies carcasses, taxidermic mounts, or artificial models are useful components of roost dispersal efforts and can possibly be used in other applications, such as crop damage management.
American crow populations have increased steadily since in many parts of the U.
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Large winter congregations of crows in urban environments have resulted in an increased number of requests for assistance in managing nocturnal roosts in New York. Since that time, similar programs have been implemented in 4 other cities in New York to manage crow roosts ranging in size from 8, - 63, individuals. The goals of the programs were to minimize noise, accumulations of crow feces around residences, strong odors associated with droppings, property damage, clean-up costs, and potential threats to human health and safety.
The primary management strategy relied on dispersing concentrated crow populations from high-impact high-conflict areas, to low-impact low-conflict areas. We provide summary information from 5 cities in New York documenting crow management techniques, intensity of effort, number of interventions required to relocate crow populations, and key lessons learned regarding sciencebased project documentation, project transparency, communication, and the need for long-term adaptive management strategies to meet project goals.
Raven populations that depredate livestock, damage agricultural crops, and injure endangered and threatened species, can be managed with egg baits containing the avicide DRC 3-chloro-p-toluidine. Estimating baiting efficacy is difficult, as DRC is a slow-acting toxicant. Efficacy estimation is further complicated by the feeding behavior of ravens at bait sites.
To evaluate the efficacy of an egg baiting operation, we developed a computer simulation to predict bait consumption by ravens, incorporating a DRC degradation module to predict DRC bait concentration at the time of consumption and an effects module to predict the mortality associated with the resulting DRC dose. Details of the simulation will be presented in the context of predicting baiting efficacy using egg baits in different climatic environments. These preliminary results provide the basis for designing field studies that can be used to improve and validate the model.
Double-crested cormorants commonly depredate channel catfish at aquaculture facilities in the southeastern U. Prior research has demonstrated regional night-roost harassment i.
The effect of dispersal varied greatly by study site. At one site, the mean abundance of cormorants on catfish production ponds decreased following dispersal; however, on the other 5 sites the mean abundance of cormorants did not change on catfish production ponds following night-roost dispersal. We recommend further research to evaluate the effectiveness of night-roost dispersal using lethal control. Furthermore, we offer recommendations for the design of future large-scale studies, which include improvements to reduce large variation.
The economic impact of wildlife-caused damage and associated management is one of the many factors that arguably play a role in the decision-making process of wildlife managers. Often the role of an economist is to value the damage created by wildlife, or to assess programmatic efficiency to determine if changes can be made to increase return per dollar invested in management efforts.
Frequently, the results of economic analyses of wildlife-caused damage are used to justify program efforts in the pursuit or maintenance of funding. The complexity of determining the economic impact of wildlife-caused damage requires that there is a clear understanding of the methodological approach used to determine impacts. Examining specific methodological approaches used in actual case studies provides a systematic replicable approach to valuing damage. This study outlines the methodology for determining the economic impact of cormorant damage to natural resources in a local economy: the Oneida Lake Region of central New York.
Since the mids, there has been a steady rise in the numbers of great cormorants in all Eurasia, and in the number over-wintering annually in Israel.
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference
Winter counts in recent years show about 15, - 20, great cormorants in Israel; they arrive in October and stay until March. Over the years, colonies of over-wintering great cormorants, which can have over 5, individuals each, come into conflict at commercial fish farms in Israel, which are in the form of local concentrations of open earthen ponds, in which are grown very high concentrations of food fish, mainly carp, tilapia, grass carp, and mullet.
Over the years, many attempts have been made to reduce the negative impact of over-wintering great cormorants on the commercial fish farms in Israel, utilizing lethal and non-lethal methods.
Over 50 banding returns from the last 2 decades showed that the great cormorants over-wintering in Israel originated in the area around the northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov, around the Crimean Peninsula in southern Ukraine about km or miles due north. This overabundant species causes considerable damage around its nesting sites in Ukraine by interfering with endangered waterbirds, and by conflicting with fishermen. Israel has recently been exploring ways to utilize international cooperation for management of the nesting population in Ukraine, in order to reduce the size of the wintering population in Israel and also to prevent damage to endangered waterbirds in Ukraine.
An experimental program is proposed for reducing the nesting success of the Ukrainian population.
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A smaller great cormorant population should impact less upon nesting waterbirds in Ukraine and also decrease the intensity of the conflict with both Ukrainian and Israeli fishermen, thereby lessening the extent of lethal control used against great cormorants in both countries. The proposed experimental program includes egg-oiling of ground-nesting birds and hazing tree-nesting birds with green lasers.
Although rice consumption should be a null model of bird damage to yield, data from cage traps and point counts indicate that blackbird flocks arrive in wild rice fields 3 to 4 weeks before rice was available for consumption, but coincidental with the time when blackbird form post-breeding flocks. Wild rice plants appear to be attractive habitat from the time the wild rice begins heading until it is harvested c.
Hence, nesting phenology is the best predictor of blackbird occurrence and their potential damage to wild rice. Potential blackbird damage affects sunflower planting patterns and reduces profits. One option to manage damage is to reduce the local blackbird population using DRC bait. The challenges are to limit nontarget bird hazards while attracting large numbers of blackbirds. During fall , we assessed the nontarget bird risks of using rice baits on elevated bait trays attached to the top of decoy traps. During random visits to bait sites, we recorded individual birds and 12 avian species.
Sparrow species were the most prevalent of the non-blackbirds. Strategic placement of the bait trays near large roosts will be necessary for this technique to be successful. Ultimately, Wildlife Services might use DRCtreated rice baits on bait trays for managing local blackbird damage.
Northern Sustainabilities: Understanding and Addressing Change in the Circumpolar World
Sunflower producers in the northern Great Plains are annually plagued by feeding flocks of blackbirds, especially red-winged blackbirds RWBL. Thus, there is a need for new innovative approaches to managing blackbird damage. One approach is to find non-lethal species-specific methods of lowering reproduction by discovering vulnerable behavioral tendencies in the reproductive cycle of RWBL.
Male RWBL are a good candidate for reproductive control because of their territorial and polygynous reproductive behavior. We have designed a study to assess the male RWBL response to a model placed in pre-copulatory position under different treatment scenarios.