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Nevertheless, Mrs. Heron's selfishness was of a gentle and even loveable type.

Selfishness disappears in a nature such as Leighton possessed, when that level is reached. His loving nature was weaned to indifference, to a selfishness worse than death. Words related to selfish self-indulgence , greed , self-worship , stinginess. Words nearby selfish self-wrong , selfdom , selfheal , selfhood , selfie , selfish , selfless , selfness , selfridge , selfsame , selfward.

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    Figure 2 shows the results of circular stochastic modeling analyses conducted on these data. The point estimates of Grouzet et al. Consider for example that Grouzet et al. Some investigations have involved younger as well as older individuals, however, and have shown protective associations Interpersonal Processes in Depression Jennifer L. Hames , Christopher R.

    Hagan , and Thomas E. Kasser et al. Deci, 1,2,3 Anja H. Olafsen, 2 and Richard M. Another measure of individual differences in SDT is extrinsic versus intrinsic aspirations or goals e. Finally, values are related to psychological well-being. Antoni, Patrice G.

    Theory of Humans: Selfishness

    Human and animal models indicate that IL-6 levels are increased under conditions of psychological and social stress , , Dyadic Relationships Robert C. Social and Emotional Aging Susan T. Charles 1 and Laura L. Social anxiety is clearly an interpersonal emotion that is involved in detecting and responding to events that have implications for the degree to which people are valued and accepted by others see Leary Miller , Explanation and Understanding Frank C. People do discount explanations when such conflicts of interest are made salient Miller But there are also reasons to think that the predecision viewpoint was more valid.

    Miller has shown that American citizens overestimate the degree to which their own opinions and behavior are governed by self-interest. Disrespect and the Experience of Injustice Dale T. Several other theoretical perspectives have also been influential in relationship science, including risk regulation theory Murray et al. Diagnosticity is also a key element of both the risk regulation model Murray et al. This is a basic conflict that both partners must struggle to resolve because relationships cannot fully develop unless the two of them are willing to take leaps of faith Murray et al.

    Murray and colleagues extracted several key features of interdependence theory and attachment theory, Tory Higgins 1 and Thane S. Cacioppo, 1 Stephanie Cacioppo, 1 John P. Capitanio, 2 and Steven W.

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    Caspi et al. Theobald, 2,1 Beth Anctil, 3 and Eduard E. Caregivers are at higher risk of depression and heart disease 81, 82 , The neurohormonal circuits that support mammalian parental care are likely exapted from preexisting circuits that evolved to support reproductive behaviors Preston The entry point to the mammalian parental care system is thought to be the amygdala Preston , Caregivers are at higher risk of depression and heart disease 81, 82 , and they even experience higher mortality rates Social Networks and Health Kirsten P.

    Smith 1 and Nicholas A. Steen , and Martin E.

    The other major line of research on the consequences of volunteering has focused on whether it affects the psychological and physical health of adult volunteers. Ostracism Kipling D. The vast majority of research has focused on emotional support and has shown links to disease adjustment; other kinds of support are not nearly as often the subject of investigation Uchino Supportive social ties can also trigger beneficial physiological sequelae e.

    Although social support may help to buffer individuals from the impact of stress Uchino , Seyfarth and Dorothy L. There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth.

    Read More. Figure 1: Privileging stereotype consistency in how people deal with information, communicate with each other, and evaluate others. There is clear evidence that parents can and do influence children. Twin and I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models Figure 2: A modification of the original model to take account of the evidence of links between working memory and long-term memory LTM.

    Figure 3: The model following the introduction of a fourth component, the episodic buffer, a system for integrating information from a range of sources into a multidimensional code Baddeley Figure 5: A speculative view of the flow of information from perception to working memory.

    The Calculus of Selfishness | Princeton University Press

    VSSP, visuo-spatial sketchpad. A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes Supplemental text Read More.

    Figure 2: Toward a general model of affective influences on decision making: the emotion-imbued choice model. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the Email Share. Download Citation Citation Alerts. Abstract We examine recent evidence on the consequences of selfishness and otherishness for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships.

    Keywords giving , receiving , selfish , otherish , motivation , well-being , relationships. Giving Can Be Beneficial Giving to others can be good for psychological health. Giving Can Be Costly Alongside research documenting the benefits of giving, a large body of research suggests that giving can have negative effects on psychological, physical, and relationship well-being.

    Moderators and Mechanisms Why do some forms of giving lead to poor outcomes, whereas other forms of giving lead to positive outcomes? Receiving Can Be Costly Despite evidence that receiving care, support, and responsiveness from others has a range of benefits, other research suggests that receiving can have costs. Moderators and Mechanisms Why is receiving sometimes beneficial and sometimes costly?

    Benefits of Otherish Motivation Research on the consequences of otherish motivation suggests that it has many benefits for psychological well-being. Costs of Otherish Motivation In contrast to the abundant evidence that otherish motivation has benefits for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships, we were unable to find any evidence that otherish motivation has costs for these outcomes. Moderators and Mechanisms What accounts for the beneficial effects of otherish motivation on psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships?

    Costs of Selfish Motivation Selfish motivation is clearly related to poor psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. Benefits of Selfish Motivation Much as being otherish has some seemingly obvious costs, being selfish seemingly has some obvious benefits. Moderators and Mechanisms What accounts for the negative effects of selfish motivations on psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships? We know relatively little about cultural influences on selfishness and otherishness. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation.

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