Considerations on a Professional Group in the 15th and 16th centuries Tobias Daniels, University of Munich The paper aims at reconstructing the community of the German bakers in Rome from the 15th century up to the sack of Rome It thus deals with a professional group that became very wealthy and well organized in the course of the Papal Annona-politics. This paper seeks to widen the picture by focusing on the Roman notarial archives Archivio di Stato and Archivio Capitolino. It will thus give a first approach to an analysis in more depth regarding patterns of relationships, interpersonal networks and cultural emanations of a professional group that provided food for the population of Rome and the Popes themselves.
An in - depth study of the manuscript shows how a recipe collection can effectively be considered a historical document. While focusing briefly on sugar as a costly status symbol, a broad spectrum history of this ephemeral art will also be outlined. The significance of sugar sculpture, which adorned papal and court banquets, will be illustrated with the very first detailed typological classification, and accompanied by unique drawings and etchings. How did Roman humanists reinvestigate the origins of Rome?
The Augustan age in particular saw an explosion of accounts drawing on a wide range of Greek and Roman sources. Certain approaches to historiography and archaeology began to be forged, as we can see from the artes historicae, reports of ancient sites, and commentaries on the ancient historians written by humanists. Capturing the Eternal City in Flux: 17th-c. Over the course of the century, hundreds of artists from the Low Countries flocked to the city, recording along the way their impressions of the Caput Mundi. This paper investigates drawings by seventeenth-century Netherlandish artists as visual evocations of the artist-migrant experience.
The cracked facades, crumbling ruins, and humble travel stops repeatedly sketched by artists such as Jan Asselijn, Jan Both, and Jan Baptist Weenix, venerated not the legendary Eternal City, but rather contemporary Rome in flux. Many examples also portrayed artists working cooperatively and sketching in pairs or groups.
Such drawings not only suggest that these artists were keenly aware of their position as migrants, but also that they capitalized on their foreignness in order to capture Rome as a thriving cosmopolitan center. Il baldacchino angelico di Buonvicino venne poi smantellato nel per fare posto a quello di Gian Lorenzo Bernini. For several days a long queue of curious spectators lined up for an opportunity to view and touch the pagan corpse until Pope Innocent VIII Cybo had the body secretly removed and anonymously disposed.
Giovanni in Laterano. Durante il periodo avignonese, i Frangipane furono una famiglia di secondo piano. At first glance, the imagery of the Carafa Chapel appears to consist of some standard portrayals of the Virgin of the Annunciation and Saint Thomas Aquinas. However, interpretations of the iconography of the fresco cycle remain disputed by art historians. The two women were themselves double cousins, not unusual in this many- branched family where Orsini-Orsini marriages were common.
Alfonsina established a major presence in Rome during the Ponfiticate of her brother-in- law, Leo X, building her own palace. Individual Orsini, moreover, served her as ladies in waiting and military captains, as well as Papal representatives and ambassadors with business in France. Catherine prided herself as a consultant on strategic marriages and in she exchanged letters with her cousin Cosimo I about the proposed marriage of his daughter Isabella with Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano.
Examination of these relationships demonstrates how the claims and deployment of family connections, even when very complex, can bridge the distances between Paris, Rome, and Florence to further political and personal ends. A profitable meeting led to the Jesuits situating themselves in the city center and strategically adapting it to their needs. This paper will examine how the early Jesuits used Rome to develop their order and combat heresy in the early modern period.
The Carceri Nuove, a joint project of Virgilio Spada and architect Antonio del Grande, represented a complete rethinking of prison spaces, including the separation of prisoners by sex, religion, and social status. The building was conspicuous not only because of its location on the noble avenue of Julius II, but also because of its external appearance.
- My Friend Brownie?
- Whoo's My Cutie Blanket.
- manyounonohanasuisaigasyuuroku (Japanese Edition).
In this paper, I will review the motives for the construction of the New Prisons and discuss the unusual qualities of its design in the context of contemporary ideas of social control. Cultivating Talent: Education and Work Training in Early Modern Roman Orphanages and Conservatori Alessandra Franco, University of Mary, Bismark The paper investigates the educative program of several charitable institutions devoted to the education of abandoned or marginalized girls in early modern Rome. In orphanages and shelters, confraternities and religious orders developed training programs designed to teach their female wards handicrafts and artistic skills.
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This study examines how, in addition to providing financial support for the institutions themselves, the work and artistic performances of the wards empowered the trainees with a set of specialized skills spendable in the outside world. Thus, his most significant sources on China were Jesuit Procurators — Mission envoys with whom he met in person.
While in Rome, the procurators shared with Kircher their materials and knowledge, enjoying sometimes his influence in the city. While St. Yet the century following the rediscovery of her body saw a spike in texts—in print and in manuscript—depicting the saint, her death, and her relationship to the papacy: spiritual treatises, verse, opera librettos, tragedies, ballets, and other dramas.
The present paper considers in particular the evaluation of Roman Humanism in this work,which was written mostly while Giovio was a courtier in the entourages of Paul III and of his nephew, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Amid this uproar of vigorous form, gender lines are clearly drawn: men occupy themselves with the narrative task of removing Christ from his cross, while their female counterparts are consumed with emotive demonstration.
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In contrast to the now-lost frescoes decorating the ceiling and side walls in which St. Helena was a central player, the altarpiece regulates women to a primarily affective role. Il cavaliere e la dama ovvero il giurista e la regina. Dopo aver preso gli ordini minori fu consacrato sacerdotr nel , nel ottenne la nomina a cardinale. Gwynne, The American University of Rome In July five Jesuit brothers, led by Rodolfo Acquaviva , set out for the province of Salcete with the intention of founding a new church and mission in India. Their dream was almost immediately, and brutally, terminated by local opposition.
When their massacre was announced in Rome it was treated as martyrdom. As a prelude to his own martyrdom, at the end of Book One the hero of this epic witnesses a cavalcade of the first Christian martyrs. This is based upon the images from the fresco cycle at the Church of Santo Stefano Rotondo. As a result, we know something about the way that his civic-minded murals and pitture infamanti communicated his political, social, and spiritual commentary on the state of fourteenth-century Rome.
Interestingly, the medieval visual traditions of secular and religious art, both of which Cola partook in, are echoed by some twenty-first-century murals on the walls of various buildings around Rome.
Image and Ritual: The Spiritual Theatre of the Quarant'ore in Seventeenth-Century Rome Andrew Horn, University of Edinburgh In this paper I offer an examination of the Quarant'ore in seventeenth-century Rome which highlights the elaborate scenographies produced for the devotion and focuses on their relationship to the rite itself. I will analyse several key examples, focusing on the role of images and their meanings within the 'spiritual theatre' of the devotion.
This theatre comprised both the externally performed rite and the 'interior theatre' of prayer and meditation which the faithful performed throughout period of the exposition.
This discussion will be guided by the Quaranta essercitii spirituali per l'oratione delle Quaranta hore by the Jesuit Luca Pinelli. This paper focuses on its lost rectangular base with its characteristic rustication, frieze, and corner pilaster and investigates their reception in drawings, built architecture and even furniture of the second half of the fifteenth century by Filarete, Giuliano da Sangallo, Simone del Pollaiolo, and others.
Innocent commissioned the fountain during one of the worst famines to grip Rome and Lazio.
From , a series of poor harvests caused grain to become scarce and bread prices to sky-rocket. This paper will examine the protests staged against the fountain, arguing that the people were insisting that Innocent adhere to a traditional moral economy unique to his role as papal father. Santa Maria della Pace and Sienese Patronage in the Sixteenth Century Philippa Jackson, British School in Rome Santa Maria della Pace was a centre for Sienese patronage in Rome during the sixteenth century in particular in relation to the chapels of the Chigi and Mignanelli but also was favoured as a burial place as indicated by the various tombs of the Sienese and their associates.
The church was connected to the Apostolic Chamber, at a time when the Sienese were particularly powerful in this important curial body, and in particular the college of apostolic secretaries, who were accustomed to meet there. This paper considers why the Sienese were particularly attracted to the church, and the complexities of chapel endowments in Santa Maria della Pace in the light of new documents. Finally, information garnered from an inventory taken in after the deaths of both Agostino and Francesca allows us to hypothesize how the room was seen and used on a daily basis by the couple and their visitors, further contextualizing the fundamental multivalent messages the room expressed to its original audience.
I will thereby focus on a Dutchman, Aernout van Buchel, who visited Rome during his Grand Tour in and whose Latin diary of his journey is conserved in the University Library of Utrecht. In the end I will focus on the remarks Aernout makes about the inscriptions of the Pantheon. Together with Jan de Jong he published many articles on several aspects of this manuscript. If necessary or wished for this lecture could also be given in Italian. Its architect, however, is unknown. This paper, an anticipation of a book on the subject, ascribes the design of the infirmary to Giovanni Giocondo da Verona, a humanist-architect of the highest caliber, a close associate of Leon Battista Alberti and the author of the first illustrated edition of Vitruvius.
He enjoyed enormous reputation among contemporaries, but no buildings have thus far been securely attributed to him. Scholars generally have taken this treatise as an accurate representation of the early modern pilgrimage experience. Indeed, his work is now mainly consulted for descriptions of now lost buildings and objects.
But careful reading reveals both inaccuracies and surprising lacunae. For example, why did Mariano—the prolific promoter of Franciscan history—not mention the Pinturicchio frescoes of Bernardino of Siena in the Aracoeli? This paper will examine his discussions of several sites in order to discuss how Mariano experienced the city, evaluate its role in Franciscan history, as well as consider how he wanted other visitors to respond.
It also promised 13 more volumes to reconstruct the urban development of ancient Rome and to document all its buildings, all architectural details and ornaments, all instruments, all inscriptions, all coins and medals, all reliefs, tombstones and statues, all vases and decorative objects, all paintings, all aqueducts and all reconstructable machines. The aim of all this was to understand Roman architecture comprehensively and, by doing so, to re-awake it: a systematically planned Renaissance, so to say.
Leone, Boston College The history of art and architecture in baroque Rome has essentially been told through singular relationships between powerful patrons and great artists, with Urban VIII Barberini and Bernini as the paradigm. But Innocent X accomplished a great amount of building in a short amount of time, including the nave decoration of St. I propose a new model for understanding his contribution to the arts in midth- century Rome by focusing on how he accomplished these building projects: rather than privileging a single artist, Innocent relied on a reliable network of artists and artisans across multiple sites.
But how did these networks impact specific events and were they able to maintain relevance under different Papacies?
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For centuries Artemisia Gentileschi has been reputed to be the only woman Roman artist of her times and her crucial role has been deeply investigated Garrard, Christiansen, Mann. Recent studies have revealed instead the presence of many women artists in Rome which function was particularly significant in the first half of the seventeenth century Lollobrigida.
For instance, two portraits of Virginia da Vezzo and Maddalna Corvina depict the artists while proudly wearing their pearls necklaces. An etching represents Anna Maria Vaiani with earrings pearls. The choice of a pearls necklace was consciously made. Symbols of purity and love pearls were also topics in literature.
Oste e taverniere si nasce o si diventa? It explores the relationship between the papacy and the city by focussing on the representation of architecture in painting rather than on built architecture, as most scholarship has tended to do. Not Just for Men. Many of the litigants were male, too, but far from all of them. Although Italian scholarship has not yet given them much attention, early modern women actively brought cases to civil courts in many places, including Rome.
Among the services of the charitable confraternities, as stated in their statutes, was assistance to the needy in conducting lawsuits.