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Can the world make the chemicals it needs without oil? | Science | AAAS
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Chemical Engineering as a Profession
I am interested in: Receiving more information Placing an order. Submit or call toll free: Complete pricing details. Description The cross disciplinary approach of chemical and materials engineering is rapidly growing as it applies to the study of educational, scientific and industrial research activities by solving complex chemical problems using computational techniques and statistical methods. High-temperature materials have received wider attention recently due to the growing need for high-performance materials in aerospace, automotive, structural, and en Jangid Banasthali University, Tonk, India.
Polyaniline PANI is one of the most common and widely studied conducting polymers due to its excellent electro-chemical and electrical properties and its various a Applications and Techniques for Experimental Stress Analysis. The design of mechanical components for various engineering applications requires the understanding of stress distribution in the materials. The need of determining Statistics is a key characteristic that assists a wide variety of professions including business, government, and factual sciences. Companies need data calculation t The field of engineering is no Nanocomposites for the Desulfurization of Fuels.
Research on nanotechnology has mainly focused on the aspects of synthesis of nanomaterials that have unique chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties applicable t One aspect that has failed to adopt th Mohammed C. Petroleum refining and the petrochemical industry play an important role in the current world economy.
They provide the platform to convert basic raw materials into Nanotechnology in Aerospace and Structural Mechanics. The realms of aerospace and structural mechanics have been revolutionized due to a plethora of technological advances. These two important sectors most notably have The field of polymer nanocomposites has become essential for engineering and military industries over the last few decades as it applies to computing, sensors, biome Microfluidics represent great potential for chemical processes design, development, optimization, and chemical engineering bolsters the project design of industrial Different numerical and analytical methods have been employed to find the solution of governing equations for nanofluid flow and heat transfer.
Applications of Nanof Strategic Applications of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation. Measurement techniques form the basis of scientific, engineering, and industrial innovations. The methods and instruments of measurement for different fields are con The Geometry of Higher-Dimensional Polytopes. The majority of the chemical elements form chemical compounds with molecules of higher dimension i.
This fact is very important f Composites and Advanced Materials for Industrial Applications.
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The design and study of materials is a pivotal component to new discoveries in the various fields of science and technology. By better understanding the components a Emerging Synthesis Techniques for Luminescent Materials. Handbook of Research on Ergonomics and Product Design. Giving up those fuels doesn't involve chemical magic. The trick is to do so economically.
That process requires a cheap source of renewable electricity.
Sargent, Jaramillo, and colleagues compared the costs of making a variety of simple industrial compounds with fossil fuels or renewable electricity. If electricity's cost fell further, more compounds would be within reach. Sargent's papers are "right on the mark," says Harry Gray, a chemist at the California Institute of Technology Caltech in Pasadena, who has analyzed what's needed to displace fossil fuels with electrosynthesis. Of making commodities by electrosynthesis, he says, "I think we'll be there within 10 years. Industrial chemists make most molecules by breaking down and refining hydrocarbons in oil and natural gas into smaller compounds.
Researchers now want to use renewable electricity to energize simple starting materials such as water and carbon dioxide CO 2 and stitch the pieces together into the same compounds.
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Siemens uses an established technology called proton-exchange membrane PEM electrolyzers, which apply a voltage between two electrodes, one on each side of a polymer membrane. The voltage splits water molecules at a catalyst-coated anode into O 2 , hydrogen ions, and electrons. The CO can be captured and sold for use in chemical manufacturing. Or it can be combined with hydrogen ions and electrons generated at the anode to construct a range of other building blocks for industrial chemistry, including gases such as ethylene—the raw material for certain plastics—and liquids such as ethanol and methanol.
According to Etosha Cave, Opus 12's chief scientific officer, the company has already produced 16 commodity chemicals.
Last month, in Dresden, Germany, a company called Sunfire completed a test run of a high-temperature electrolysis reactor, known as a solid-oxide fuel cell, that promises even higher efficiency than PEM electrolyzers. The reactor is at the heart of a four-stage test plant that generates fuel from water, CO 2 , and electricity. Those ions travel through an oxygen-permeable solid membrane to the anode, where they give up electrons and combine to produce O 2. The mix of CO and H 2 , known as synthesis gas, then moves to a third reactor, which assembles them into more complex hydrocarbons.
Sunfire's test plant now makes about 10 liters of fuel per day.
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The company is already scaling up the technology and plans to open its first commercial plant, in Norway, next year. The setup will be part of a larger plant that will use 20 megawatts of hydropower to produce tons of transportation fuel per year, enough to supply 13, cars. Another advance could also boost efficiency: using industrial waste as the source of electrons needed to split off CO from CO 2.
And as a bonus, when glycerol loses electrons, it produces a combination of formic acid and lactic acid, two common industrial compounds used as preservatives and in cleaning products and cosmetics. The problems are twofold: First, every time new bonds are forged, some energy is lost.
And generating more-complex hydrocarbons inevitably means making more side products. That outcome forces producers to separate their desired compound, at extra cost. But innovations are starting to help there, too, including better catalysts. They achieved that efficiency by pressing one electrode directly onto the membrane, thereby eliminating a fluid-filled gap that was sapping energy and was causing the device to break down quickly. One class of complex molecules that could prove easier to make with electricity is carbon nanotubes.
Those long, hollow, strawlike molecules—prized for their strength and electronic capabilities—are commonly made through chemical vapor deposition: In a heated quartz tube, cobalt and iron catalysts strip away carbon atoms from pumped-in acetylene gas and add them to growing nanotubes that take seed on the metal particles.
The chemical engineer's interest in these fields focuses on the invention and development of materials and processes useful to society. Historically, chemical engineers have been pivotal and indispensable. The unique element of their involvement in these fields is their capacity to plan and implement chemical transformations and separations. In the complex processes of both nature and industry, chemical and physical phenomena are nearly always closely associated. It is the interaction between such phenomena that the chemical engineer seeks to master.
In addition, the discipline of economics enters as a third dimension in every technological endeavor. Chemical engineering occupations span the full range of activity from fundamental research to process development, process operations, marketing, industrial and government liaison, and company management. Contributions to nearly all of these pursuits are made by graduates of the four-year Bachelor of Science program.